This helps against dandruff

What causes dandruff and how to treat dry and oily dandruff

Everyone loses flakes of skin every day. Because the skin renews itself about every four weeks and sheds the old, dead skin cells. The scales are so tiny that you usually don't notice them at all. However, if the skin gets rid of the old cells too quickly and they clump together, scales become visible. Then, for example, small, light flakes trickle down the neck and shoulders. Or shiny flakes get caught in the hair - that doesn't look nice either.

Dr. Dirk Meyer-Rogge, dermatologist from Karlsruhe, answers the most important questions about dandruff.

Our expert: Dr. Dirk Meyer-Rogge, dermatologist from Karlsruhe

© Meyer-Rogge practice

Mr. Meyer-Rogge, there are dry and greasy dandruff. Are there different causes?

Yes. A dry scalp can lead to dry, fine dandruff. Heating air, air conditioning or a strongly degreasing shampoo, for example, can trigger this. Oily dandruff, on the other hand, is more likely to form if someone has an oily scalp. Often a yeast called Pityrosporum ovale Problems. This fungus is part of the normal skin flora, but can multiply quickly under favorable conditions. It causes the scalp to flake out even more.

Do men actually struggle with dandruff more often than women, or is that a misconception?

This applies to greasy dandruff. Men tend to have oilier scalps because their glands secrete more sebum. Dry dandruff can just as easily occur in women. They tend to have dry skin.

Dandruff is said to occur predominantly in 20 to 40 year olds. Is that correct?

I am not aware of that. However, teenagers may have problems with dandruff during puberty. Suddenly your skin becomes oily. Not only do you get dandruff more often, but most of all, you get acne. When puberty is over, both skin problems subside.

Can a skin disease also cause dandruff?

Yes, in any case. Dandruff can be the result of neurodermatitis, psoriasis or a fungal infection. Since it is difficult to tell the appearance of these flakes from harmless ones, it is better to consult a dermatologist if in doubt.

What helps against dry dandruff?

I recommend a mild shampoo to my patients that is specially designed for dry and sensitive scalps. The problem with regular shampoos is that they degrease. That is why I also recommend a "night oil cap". Simply drip a few drops of olive oil onto the scalp with a pipette and leave it on overnight. This is really good for a dry scalp. In the morning wash off the oil with a mild shampoo.

What works against oily dandruff on the scalp?

Anti-dandruff shampoos are ideal. They rinse out excess fat and also usually contain an anti-fungal agent. If there is a lot of dandruff in the hair, you should use the shampoo three times a week and leave it on for a few minutes each time. After two to three weeks of use, the dandruff problem should have improved significantly. Then it is sufficient to massage in the special shampoo once a week.

Dandruff is said to be more likely to develop in summer and when there is high humidity. At the sea, they disappear from some of those affected. What role does the weather play?

Indeed, high humidity can increase the appearance of greasy dandruff. The skin suffers under these conditions. In addition, fungi - like the small yeast that lives on the scalp - can spread wonderfully. A stay by the sea, on the other hand, makes dandruff disappear in some people. This is probably due to the combination of sun and salty air, which has a beneficial effect. Dry dandruff is more likely to cause problems in winter, as people spend most of their time in dry, heated rooms.